UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Fred A. Seaton, Secretary
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Conrad L. Wirth, Director
HISTORICAL HANDBOOK NUMBER TWO
This publication is one of a series of handbooks describing the
historical and archeological areas in the National Park System
administered by the National Park Service of the United States
Department of the Interior. It is printed by the Government
Printing Office and may be purchased from the Superintendent of
Documents, Washington 25, D. C. Price 25 cents.
THE TOWNSITE AND ITS STORY
By Charles E. Hatch, Jr.
The Seal of
His Majesties Council of Virginia"
The National Park Service
The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE HISTORICAL HANDBOOK SERIES NO. 2
Washington, D. C, 1949 (Revised 1957)
This publication relates to Jamestown
Island, Va. A portion of Jamestown
Island is included in Colonial National
Historical Park and is administered by the
National Park Service of the United States
Department of the Interior. Jamestown
National Historic Site, the other portion
of the island, is administered by the Asso-
ciation for the Preservation of Virginia
Antiquities. A cooperative agreement be-
tween the Association and the Depart-
ment of the Interior has been in effect since
1940 providing for a unified program of
development for the whole Jamestown
THE STORY OF JAMESTOWN 2
COLONIAL NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK 36
COLONIAL PARKWAY 36
THE STUDY OF JAMESTOWN 36
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAMESTOWN 40
GUIDE TO THE AREA 42
HOW TO REACH JAMESTOWN 53
ABOUT YOUR VISIT 53
SUGGESTED READINGS 54
The Memorial Cross at Cape Henry which marks the approximate site
of the first landing of the Jamestown colonists on American soil, April
Jamestown is the site of the first permanent English settlement in America
(1607 }, the point at which the first representative legislative assembly
convened (16 19) to set a pattern for self-government in America, the locale of
stirring events in Bacon's Rebellion (1676-77), and the capital of the Colony of
Virginia for 92 years (1607-99).
The first permanent settlement in America by the English at James-
town was a visible manifestation of the determination of that nation to
establish itself in the New World. The overthrow of Spanish seapower
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth paved the way for English coloniza-
tion ventures. Enterprising Britons had already established their influence
in India, the Near East, and Russia. Sir Walter Raleigh had made several
unsuccessful attempts to establish an enduring settlement along the
Carolina coast at Roanoke Island, events now commemorated by Fort
Raleigh National Historic Site, and Sir Humphrey Gilbert had tried, to
no avail, to make a settlement in Newfoundland.
It remained for the Virginia Company of London, under its charter of
April 10, 1606, to found the first permanent English settlement in
America. This joint stock company, a commercial organization, from
its inception assumed a national character. It was instrumental, under
its charter provisions, in guaranteeing to the settlers in the New World
the rights, freedoms, and privileges enjoyed by Englishmen at home and
the enjoyment of their customary manner of living which they adapted
to their new environment with the passage of years.
Jamestown was the site of the first settlement that grew into the
Colony of Virginia and gave heart to those men who settled the colonies
that came later. The first Virginians landed in May 1607, built houses
and a fort, planted crops, and began the struggle for the conquest of a
vast primitive land. They brought with them their church and respect
for God, maintained trial by jury and their rights as freemen, and soon
were developing representative government. All of these things are a
part of the story of Jamestown.
In the words of James Bryce, British Ambassador to the United States
at the time of the Jamestown Tercentenary, the settlement of 'James-
town was one of the great events in the history of the world— an event
to be compared for its momentous consequences with the overthrow of
the Persian Empire by Alexander; with the destruction of Carthage by
Rome; with the conquest of Gaul by Clovis; with the taking of Con-
stantinople by the Turks— one might almost say with the discovery of
America by Columbus." Here was born the great English-speaking
nation beyond the seas, of which Gilbert and Raleigh had dreamed; and
here was the cradle of our Republican institutions and liberties.
The Story of Jamestown
On May 13, 1607, three small English ships approached Jamestown
Island in Virginia— the Susan Constant of 100 tons commanded by Capt.
Christopher Newport and carrying 71 persons; the Godspeed ot 40 tons
commanded by Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold and carrying 52 persons;
and the Discovery, a pinnace, of 20 tons under Capt. John RatclifTe, carry-
ing 21 persons. During the day (as George Percy, one of the party on
board, relates) they maneuvered the ships so close to the shore that they
were "moored to the Trees in six fathom [of] water." The next day, May
14, he continues, "we landed all our men, which were set to worke about
the fortification, others some to watch and ward as it was convenient."
Thus, the first permanent English settlement in America was begun on
the shores of the James River, in Virginia, about 20 years after the ill-
fated attempts to establish a colony on Roanoke Island and 13 years
before the Pilgrims made their historic landing at Plymouth, in New
the English background. The settlement at Jamestown, in 1607, was
another step, albeit a most significant step, in England's quest for a place
in the vast New World first indicated by Columbus in his discovery of
1492 and made known to Europe through his and other expeditions.
King Henry VII of England early sought to establish a claim in North
America and sponsored the now famous voyage of John and Sebastian
Cabot in 1497- The Cabots touched points along the Atlantic coast, and
their discoveries were ever afterward pointed to with pride by English-
men discussing their rights in the New World. As William Strachey
wrote, in 1612, "... our voyages hither for a while might seeme to lye
slumbering, yet our tytle could not thereby out sleepe ytself . . .".
Despite this, England was occupied at home and in Europe and did not
press this advantage. Spain took the lead in colonial settlement and held
it for decades. How many Englishmen set foot on the North American
continent in the first three-quarters of the 16th century may never be
known. They were no strangers in the fishing waters off Newfoundland,
and in this region there appear to have been landings and temporary
settlements. Even so, serious attempts at colonization did not begin until
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and then it was pushed vigorously by men
of the mark of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, and their
Sir Humphrey lost his life in 1583 when returning from his attempted
settlement of St. John's Port, Newfoundland. Sir Walter Raleigh dili-
gently sought to establish the English flag to the south. He sent out two
colonial expeditions to found a settlement on Roanoke Island in present
eastern North Carolina. Both failed in their over-all purpose. It was the
expedition of 1587 (the last) which set sail for the Chesapeake Bay
country and landed on Roanoke Island that has come down to us as the
"Lost Colony"— the settlement that saw the birth of Virginia Dare and
that left the baffling inscription suggesting that the members of the
colony moved, willingly or unwillingly, to be with the Croatan Indians
who lived not far from Roanoke. The early men at Jamestown knew of
their countrymen who were lost in America and were under orders to
seek them. This they did, but their search went unrewarded.
By 1600, England was readying herself for a concerted drive to estab-
lish colonies in the New World. The way had been prepared by the far-
sighted Queen Elizabeth and her supporters. Within England there had
been growth; capital had accumulated; industry was taking root; com-
mercial organization was beginning; and Englishmen were ready for new
adventures. Outwardly, England had grown through its naval successes
and had developed a keen hostility to Spain. Individual Englishmen,
each depending on his own circumstances, were seeking more profitable
employment, personal freedom (particularly religious liberty), land
ownership, personal advancement, adventure, and just plain change. A
new England was in the making and the British Empire was about to
rise in the West and in the Orient as well. With the accession of James I
to the English throne, peace was made with Spain, a peace that was
maintained although it was an uneasy one— from time to time little
more than an armed truce. Yet, because of it, English capital came out
of hiding and sought profitable investment. Business development
increased and joint stock companies began to organize for overseas
Colonization was expensive, however, and required the pooled
resources of many men. Advertising, which reached a peak early in
the 17th century, was put to work in a manner that would do credit
to the present day. Its use in commerce and government is by no means
of recent date. Spokesmen— speakers, writers, poets, pamphleteers, play-
wrights, and preachers— solicited all England to take part in these new
endeavors which, in their words, gave every assurance of profitable return.
The exploits of men such as Raleigh and Gilbert, Martin Frobisher,
Michael Lok, John Davis, Thomas Cavendish, Sir Francis Drake, and Sir
John Hawkins had already made England conscious of the potentialities
of the New World and of the need to seek a part of it. Others followed
these earlier leaders. In 1602 Raleigh sent yet another ship under Samuel
Mace to seek the lost settlers of Roanoke, and in the same year a vessel
went out under Bartholomew Gosnold who attempted a settlement on
Elizabeth's Island in present Massachusetts. Gosnold and another in
this party, Gabriel Archer, were to become prominent later in the
Jamestown settlement. In 1603, Martin Pring made a voyage along the
northern part of Virginia. In 1605, came the expedition under George
Weymouth to the Kennebec River on the New England coast. He spent
some weeks here and returned to England carrying with him several
Indian natives from that region.
On April 10, 1606, the first Virginia charter received the great seal
of England. This document recognized two groups and two spheres
of influence that would fall between the thirty-fourth and forty- fifth
parallels of north latitude along the American coast. One was interested
in North Virginia and was granted to Thomas Hanham, Raleigh Gilbert,
William Parker, George Popham, and others of and for Plymouth and
other English places. This group was first in the field with exploration,
dispatching a ship in August 1606 under Henry Challons. In May 1607,
they sent a colony to the mouth of the Kennebec in Maine, but, in the
spring of 1608, after a severe winter, the settlement was given up.
The second group, organized under the charter of 1606, was that
interested in south Virginia. This patent went to Sir Thomas Gates, Sir
George Somers, Richard Hakluyt, Edward Maria Wingfield, and others
of and for the city of London. The treasurer of the group was Sir Thomas
Smith, one of the most capable businessmen of the day. Richard
Hakluyt, the foremost authority on travel, foreign regions, and coloniza-
tion in general, assembled helpful data and had a large part in the prep-
aration of instructions and orders for those to be sent out as colonists.
It was this group and their associates that organized, financed, and di-
rected the expedition that reached Jamestown on May 13, 1607, and saw
to it that supplies came through and reinforcements were procured in
the lean years of the settlement.
The immediate and long-range reasons for the settlement were many
and, perhaps, thoroughly mixed. Profit and exploitation of the country
were expected, for, after all, this was a business enterprise and they were
necessary for long-range activity. A permanent settlement was the ob-
jective. Support, financial and popular, came from a cross section of
English life. It seems obvious from accounts and papers of the period
that it was generally thought that Virginia was being settled for the
glory of God, for the honor of the King, for the welfare of England, and
for the advancement of the Company and its individual members. In
England and in Virginia they expected and did carry the word of God
to the natives, although not with the same verve as the Spanish. They
expected to develop natural resources, to free the mother country from
dependence on European states, to strengthen their navy, and to increase
national wealth and power. They expected to be a thorn in the side of
the Spanish Empire; in fact, they hoped one day to challenge and over-
shadow that empire. They sought to find the answer to agricultural
unemployment at home. They sought many things, not the least of
them being gold, silver, and land. As the men stepped ashore on James-
town Island, perhaps each had a slightly different view of why he was
there, yet some one or a combination of these motives was probably the
the first days in Virginia. The expedition of 1607 included a cargo
of supplies and 144 persons, of whom 104 or 105 (depending on which
of the more detailed contemporary accounts is accepted) were to remain
in Virginia as the first settlers. The expedition left England late in 1606.
The ships sailed down the Thames River from London on December 20
and, after a slow start, they proceeded over the long route through the
West Indies. There were stops in the islands, new experiences, and dis-
agreements among the leaders. Captain Newport was in command, and
the identity of the councilors who were to govern in Virginia lay hidden
in a locked box not to be opened until their destination had been
reached. Dissension at one point led to charges against Capt. John
Smith who reached the New World in confinement. This was suggestive
of the later personal and group feuds arid disagreements that plagued
the first years of the Virginia Colony.
The "Land of Virginia" was first seen by the lookout on April 26, and
just a little later in the same day a party was sent ashore at Cape Henry
to make what was the first landing in the wilderness which they came
The arrival of the settlers at Jamestown in 1607. (A painting by
Griffith Baily Coale in the State Capitol, Richmond, Va.)
to conquer. Having been aboard ship for many weeks, the settlers found
the expanse of land, the green virgin trees, the cool, fresh water, and the
unspoiled landscape a pleasant view to behold. At Cape Henry they saw
Indians and several of the party were wounded by their arrows, notably
Capt. Gabriel Archer, one of the experienced leaders. They built a
"shallop" (a small boat), went exploring into the country for short
distances by land and water, enjoyed the spring flowers, and tasted
roasted oysters and "fine beautiful strawberries." On April 29, a cross
was set up among the sand dunes. The next day the ships were moved
from Cape Henry into Chesapeake Bay to the site on Hampton Roads
which they named Point Comfort (now Old Point Comfort).
For about 2 weeks, explorations were made along both banks of the
James, below and above Jamestown, from its mouth to a point as far
upstream perhaps as the Appomattox River (Hopewell, Va.). Parties
went ashore to investigate promising areas, and communication was
established with the native tribes. On May 12, a point of land at the
mouth of Archer's Hope (now College) Creek, a little below James-
town, was examined in detail. Capt. Gabriel Archer was particularly
impressed with this location and urged that it be the point of settlement.
The soil seemed good, timber and wildlife were abundant, and it ap-
peared adaptable for defensive measures if these should become neces-
sary. It was not possible, however, to bring the ships close to the shore,
and consequently Archer's Hope was rejected. From this site the ships
moved directly to Jamestown, where they arrived May 13. On May 14,
they landed and broke ground for the fort and the town that ultimately
won the distinction of the first permanent English settlement in
America and the capital of the Virginia Colony for almost a century.
In May 1607, the days were warm, the nights, cool. Life was stirring
in the wilderness and nature had been generous, the colonists thought.
There were fruits, abundant timber, deer and other animals for food, and
a not too numerous native population. The hot, humid weather of mid-
summer and the snow, ice, and emptiness of winter were not in evidence.
The choice of a site for settlement was both good and bad. The anchor-
age for ships at Jamestown was good. The island had not then become
a true island and had an easily controlled dry land isthmus connection
with the mainland. As the river narrows here, it was one of the best con-
trol points on the James. It was not used by the Indians; and it was a
bit inland, hence somewhat out of range of the Spanish menace. Arable
land on the island was limited by inlets and "guts." The swamps were
close and bred mosquitoes in abundance and, with contamination so
easy, drinking water was a problem. All of these facts became evident to
these first English Americans as the months went by.
When the orders were opened after arrival in Virginia, it was found
that the governing body in the colony was to be made up of seven coun-
cilors. They were Edward Maria Wingfield, of gallant service in the Low
Countries; Bartholomew Gosnold and Christopher Newport, both
seasoned seamen and captains; John Ratcliffe, who piloted the Discovery
to Virginia; John Martin, an earlier commander under Drake; John
Smith, already an experienced adventurer; and George Kendall, a cousin
of Sir Edwin Sandys who later was to play a dominant role in the
Virginia Company. To this list can be added other prominent names-
George Percy, brother to the Earl of Northumberland and a trained
sailor; Gabriel Archer, a lawyer who had already explored in the New
England country; and Rev. Robert Hunt, the vicar at Jamestown, whose
pious and exemplary living was noted by his associates.
the fort. The work of establishing Jamestown and of exploring the
country round about began almost simultaneously. The several weeks
between May 13 and June 22, when Newport left Virginia for a return
to England, were busy ones. At Jamestown an area was cleared of trees
and the fort begun. The soil was readied and the English wheat brought
over for the purpose was planted. At this point Newport, in one of the
small boats, led an exploring party as far as the falls of the James (near
present Richmond) . He was successful in learning a great deal about the
country, but did not succeed in his search for gold or silver. He was
absent from Jamestown about a week and returned to find that the
Indians had launched a fierce attack on the new settlement which had
been saved, perhaps, by the fact that the ships were near at hand. These
afforded safe quarters and carried cannon on their decks that had a
frightening effect on the natives.
The fort was completed about mid-June. It was triangular in shape,
with a "Bui war ke" at each corner which was shaped like a "halfe
Moone." Within the "Bulwarkes" were mounted 4 or 5 pieces of
artillery— demiculverins which fired balls of about 9 pounds in weight.
The fort enclosed about 1 acre with its river side extending 420 feet and
its other sides measuring 300 feet. The principal gate faced the river and
was in the south side (curtain) of the fort, although there were other
openings, one at each "Bulwarke," and each was protected by a piece of
ordnance. The church, storehouses, and living quarters were flimsily
built of perishable materials, within the walls of the palisaded fort, along
fixed streets arranged around an open yard. For the first few years this
fort was Jamestown.
Before the fort was completed the wheat had come up and was grow-
ing nicely, as George Percy wrote in what was probably the first essay
on farming along the James River. About June 10, John Smith, partly
through the intercession of Robert Hunt, was released and admitted to
his seat on the council. Relations with the Indians improved. On June
21, the third Sunday after Trinity, the first recorded Anglican com-
munion at Jamestown was celebrated. "We had a comunyon. Capt.
Newport dyned ashore with our dyet, and invyted many of us to supper
as a farewell." The next day, Christopher Newport raised anchor and
began the return trip to England. He took letters from those to remain
in Virginia and carried accounts describing Virginia and the events that
had occurred. The settlement had been made, and the future seemed
summer and autumn, 1607. Within the short span of 2 months, condi-
tions changed drastically. The Indians became cautious and distrustful,
and provisions, not sufficiently augmented from the country, began to
run low. Spoilage destroyed some food, and, with the coming of the hot,
.humid weather, the brackish drinking water proved dangerous. In
August, death struck often and quickly, taking among others the
stabilizing hand of Captain Gosnold. Inexperience, unwillingness, or in-
ability to do the hard work that was necessary and the lack of sufficient
information about how to survive in a primeval wilderness led to bicker-
ing, disagreements, and, to what was more serious still, inaction. They
forgot a most important bit of advice that had been given them by "His
Majesties Council for Virginia": "... the way to prosper and achieve
good success is to make yourselves all of one mind for the good of your
country and your own . . .".
On arrival in Virginia the resident councilors, as outlined in their
orders, met and named one of their number as president. Real power
was with the council, however, and the president was without actual
independent authority. This was a serious defect (corrected in the sec-
ond company charter in 1609) which prevented a well-directed and
coordinated program at Jamestown during the first 3 years. As the
first summer wore on it was natural that hostility should develop
toward the titular head of the colony. Had the first president, Edward
Maria Wingfield, been a stronger, more adventurous, and more dar-
ing man, conditions might have been a little better, despite his lack
of real authority. He was not the leader, however, to act and to reason
later. Consequently, opinion was arrayed against him and charges, some
unjust no doubt, were formed that led to his deposition and replace-
ment in one of the two celebrated jury trials which occurred at James-
town about mid-September. His successor, perhaps no more able, was
John Ratcliffe who continued for about a year until deposed and replaced
by Matthew Scrivener, one of those who came over with the first supply.
It was a little later, in 1608, that Capt. John Smith took the helm as
chief councilor, which was what the president really was. It was under
the presidency of RatclifTe, however, that Smith emerged as an able, ex-
perienced leader, who preferred action to inaction even though it might
be questioned later. His work and his decisions, sometimes wise, some-
times not so wise, did much to insure the survival of the colony.
When the first cool days of approaching autumn touched Jamestown
in 1607, spirits rose and hopefulness supplanted despair. Disease, which
had reduced the number to less than 50 persons, subsided; the oppres-
sive heat lessened; and Indian crops of peas, corn, and beans began to
mature. Friendlier relations were established with the natives, and barter
Statue of Capt. John Smith, by William Couper. The Old Church
Tower is in the background.
trade developed. As the leaves fell, game became easier to get, ducks
multiplied in the ponds and marshes, and life in general seemed brighter.
Work was resumed at Jamestown in preparation for the coming winter,
and exploration was undertaken. It was in December, while investigat-
ing the Chickahominy River area, that Smith was taken by the Indians.
He was eventually carried before Powhatan who released him, some say
through the intercession of the young Pocahontas. This incident Smith
did not mention in his detailed account of the events of the Colony writ-
ten several months later. It was not until a number of years later, in fact,
that this romantic story evolved in its present form.
the first supply. Upon returning to Jamestown, Smith was caught in
the meshes of a feuding council. All was forgotten early in January,
however, when Newport reached Jamestown with the first supply for
the settlers. He brought food, equipment, instructions, and news from
home. His cargo was not sufficient, but for the moment this was over-
looked. The two ships of the supply had left England together, but the
second did not reach Virginia until April.
Shortly after Newport's arrival in January, disaster came to Jamestown.
Fire swept through the fort, consuming habitations, provisions, ammuni-
tion, and even some of the palisades. This was a serious blow in the face
of winter weather. With the help of Newport and his sailors, the church,
storehouse, palisades, and cabins were partially rebuilt before he sailed
again for England early in April. Much more could have been done had
he not consumed so many days in a pompous visit and lengthy negotia-
tions with the wily Powhatan. Then, too, the ships had to be loaded for
the return voyage, for the London backers were loudly calling for
profitable produce. The first of the spring months were spent in cutting
cedar logs and preparing "clapboards" for sale in England, and a little
later there seems to have been a mild "gold rush" at Jamestown as some
hopeful looking golden colored soil was found. This all delayed early
spring clearing and planting, and boded ill for the coming summer when
Ratcliffe wasted precious days building a house suitable to his position
and Smith engaged in important, yet not particularly pressing,
the first marriage at jamestown. It was in September 1608 that
Smith became president in fact and inaugurated a program of physical
improvement at Jamestown. The area about the fort was enlarged and
the standing structures repaired. At this point, in October, the second
supply arrived, including 70 settlers, who, when added to the survivors
in Virginia, raised the over-all population to about 120. Among the new
arrivals were two women— Mistress Forrest and her maid. Several
months later, in the church at Jamestown, the maid, Ann Burras, was
married to one of the settlers, John Laydon, a carpenter by trade. This
marriage has been ranked as "the first recorded English marriage on the
soil of the United States." Their child, Virginia, born the next year, was
the first to be born at Jamestown. Here was the beginning of family life
in the new colony. Soon other women would arrive to help continue, or
to establish, new homes.
THE SECOND SUPPLY AND EARLY INDUSTRY. With the Second Supply
came workmen sent over to produce glass, pitch, soap ashes, and other
items profitable in England. These men, including some Poles and
Dutchmen, were quickly assigned to specific duties. So rapidly did they
begin that "trials" of at least one product, glass, were sent home when
Newport left Jamestown before the end of the year. As usual, in addi-
tion to settlers and supplies, Newport brought more 'instructions from
the company officials. The colony was not succeeding financially, and
it was urged that the council spend more time in the preparation of
marketable products. It was urged, too, that gold be sought more
actively; that Powhatan be crowned as a recognition befitting his posi-
tion; and that more effort be expended in search of the Roanoke settlers.
These things were all desirable, but, at the moment, impracticable. No
one understood this better than did Smith, who spoke his mind freely
in a letter he wrote for dispatch to the authorities at home. Never-
theless, these projects were emphasized, and the more pressing needs of
adequate shelter and sufficient food were neglected.
In the interval from about February to May 1609, Smith reported con-
siderable material progress in and about Jamestown. Perhaps 40 acres
The four glass furnaces located by archeological excavation on Glass-
were cleared and prepared for planting in Indian corn, the new grain
that fast became a staple commodity. A deep well was dug in the
fort. The church was re-covered and 20 cabins built. A second trial was
made at glass manufacture in the furnaces built late in 1608. A block-
house was built at the isthmus which connected the island l to the main-
land for better control of the Indians, and a new fort was erected on a
little creek across the river from Jamestown. Smith was now in com-
mand, as his fellow councilors either had returned to England or were
dead. About this time there came a new disaster. With all attention cen-
tered on the numerous construction projects, insufficient protection was
given the meager supply of grain. When discovered, rats had consumed
almost all of the corn stores. Faced with this situation, Smith found it
necessary to scatter the settlers, sending some to live with the Indians
and some to eat at the oyster banks where the unbalanced oyster diet
is reported to have caused their skin "to peel off from head to foot as if
they had been fleade." Only "a small guarde of gentlemen & some others
[were left] about the president at James Towne."
In midsummer of 1609, conditions at Jamestown were not good,
although it is doubtful that they were any worse than during the two
previous summers. The settlers were becoming acclimated, and they
1 Although Jamestown Island was not a true island until the isthmus was washed out
about the period of the Revolution, it was called an island even in the early years of the
were learning the ways of the new country. Supplies were low, yet the
number of colonists was small, and a good harvest and a good autumn
might have improved matters had not some 400 new, inexperienced
settlers sailed into the James without their leaders, without instructions,
and with damaged supplies. To add to other complications, they brought
fever and plague. In the selection of prospective settlers for the voyage
the standards had been low, and too many ne'er-do-wells, and even
renegades, had been included. This was the third supply, and it reached
Jamestown in August 1609.
THE SECOND COMPANY CHARTER AND THE THIRD SUPPLY. The Com-
pany had received a new charter in May 1609 which corrected some of
the defects of the old and made provision for a strong governor to rule
in the Colony. Despite discouraging news from Virginia, the supporters
of the enterprise did not abandon their plans to maintain the colony.
The second charter, as this was called, was subscribed and incorporated
by 56 companies of London and 659 persons, of whom 21 were peers, 96
knights, 11 doctors, ministers, etc., 53 captains, 28 esquires, 58 gentle-
men, 110 merchants, 282 citizens, and others not classified. Altogether
they represented a cross section of English life in that period.
It was resolved to send a much larger expedition to Virginia than the
three sent prior to this date. It went out in June under Sir Thomas Gates
and with him were Sir George Somers and Captain Newport. There
were 9 ships and about 500 settlers. The voyage was uneventful until
they ran into a stiff hurricane that broke up the fleet and cast ashore
in the Bermuda Islands the flagship with its three commanders. The rest
of the fleet, except one small ship lost at sea, limped into the James and
went on to Jamestown.
Returning to Virginia in the third supply were several men who had
been earlier leaders in the colony and who were now all hostile to
Smith— Archer, Ratcliffe, and Martin. A confusing scene developed over
command. The old leaders, particularly Smith, refused to give way to
the new in the absence of Gates, the appointed governor, and his in-
structions. There was considerable bickering which led to an uneasy
settlement, leaving Smith in charge for the duration of his yearly term,
now almost expired.
It was obvious to everyone that there were too many men for all to
remain at Jamestown. John Martin was sent to attempt a settlement at
Nansemond, on the south side of the James below Jamestown, while
Capt. Francis West, brother of Lord Delaware, was sent to settle at the
falls of the James. Returning to Jamestown after an inspection tour at
the falls, Captain Smith was injured by burning gunpowder and incapaci-
tated. The implication in the documents of the period is that Ratcliffe,
Archer, and Martin used this opportunity to depose him and to compel
him to return to England to face their charges against him. These three
men, failing to agree on a replacement from their own number, per-
suaded George Percy to accept the position of president. Percy was in
command during the terrible winter that followed.
the "starving time." The winter of 1609-10 has been described
through the years as the "starving time" — seemingly, an accurate de-
scription. It saw the population shrink from 500 to about 60 as a result
of disease, sickness, Indian arrows, and malnutrition. It destroyed morale
and reduced the men to scavengers stalking the fort, fields, and woods
for anything that might be used as food. When spring came there was
little spirit left in the settlement. It would seem unjust to attribute the
disaster to Percy, who did what he could to ameliorate conditions by
attempting trade and keeping the men busy. The "starving time"
appears to have been caused by an accumulation of circumstances.
There was the matter of the third supply which arrived in such poor
condition very late in the season. Bickering prevented measures that
could have been taken to prepare for the winter. Dissension continued
even after Smith's departure. Then, too, the Indians knew of conditions
at Jamestown, for they actually kept scouts in the fort much of the time.
They were learning the ways of the white man and had come to see that
he was most vulnerable in the winter season. Heretofore they had sup-
plied him corn— by gift, by trade, or unwillingly through seizure. In the
winter of 1609-10, they had a good opportunity to make him suffer, and
throughout this period the Indians were openly hostile. Perhaps the
increasingly heavy use of force and armed persuasion in dealing with
them had resulted in this attitude which, from their point of view, proved
highly effective. In the fall of 1608, they had forced the settlers in from
Nansemond and the falls. Then, in the winter of 1609-10, Powhatan
captured and killed Ratcliffe who had gone to trade with him. All
through that winter it was dangerous to be alone far from the fort.
Not having sufficient stores set aside, not able to deal with the natives,
and without the use of the resources of the countryside, there is small
wonder that conditions became serious, even desperate, for the settlers.
Those few men fortified on Hampton Roads under Capt. James Davis
(after Captain West, perhaps under threat from the crew, left Virginia
for England in the colony's best ship) fared far better than did those at
Jamestown. Even the coming of spring failed to restore full hope and
vitality to the survivors, yet certainly it must have been good to know
that winter was over.
Virginia almost abandoned. In May 1610, the hearts of the weary
settlers were gladdened when Sir Thomas Gates, their new governor,
sailed into the James. For about a year he and the survivors of the wreck
of the Sea Venture had labored in Bermuda to make possible the con-
tinuation of their voyage to Virginia. The last part of the journey was
made in two boats built by them in Bermuda— the Patience and the
Deliverance, names suggestive of their thankfulness for survival. It was
403767 O-F-56 3 15
not a pleasant sight that greeted them at Jamestown. Ruin and desola-
tion were everywhere. Gates, with his Council, on July 7, 1610, wrote
that Jamestown seemed
raither as the ruins of some auntient [fortification, then that any
people living might now inhabit it: the pallisadoes he found tourne
downe, the portes open, the gates from the hinges, the church ruined
and unfrequented, empty howses (whose owners untimely death
had taken newly from them) rent up and burnt, the living not hable,
as they pretended, to step into the woodes to gather other fire- wood;
and, it is true, the Indian as fast killing without as the famine and
Gates promptly distributed provisions, such as he had, and introduced
a code of martial law, the code that was strengthened later by Delaware
and made famous by its strict enforcement under the governorship of
Sir Thomas Dale. After surveying the condition of the settlement and
realizing that the supplies he had brought would not last 3 weeks, Gates
took council with the leaders. They decided to abandon the settlement.
On June 7, 1610, the settlers, except some of the Poles and Dutchmen
who were with Powhatan, boarded the ship, left Jamestown, and started
down the James.
The next morning, while still in the river, advance word reached Gates
that Lord Delaware had arrived at Point Comfort on the way to James-
town and was bringing 150 settlers and a generous supply. The bad news
carried to England by the returning ships of the third supply, late in
1609, had caused considerable stir in Virginia Company circles and had
resulted in Delaware's decision to go to Virginia. Learning of the new
supply, Gates hastened back to Jamestown. The new settlement had
been saved in a manner that was recognized at that time as an act of
lord Delaware reaches Jamestown. On June 10, Delaware reached
'James Citty" and made his landing. He entered the fort through the
south gate, and, with his colors flying, went on to the church where Rev.
Richard Buck delivered an impressive sermon. Then his ensign, Anthony
Scott, read his commission, and Gates formally delivered to him his own
authority as governor. Delaware's speech to the assembled colonists
cheered them, advised them, warned them, and reproached them. Thanks
to the pen of William Strachey, we have a good account of these events,
including the best description of the fort, church, and cabins that is now
known to have been preserved. With the arrival of Delaware, the settle-
ment was given new life and new hope. Lean times lay ahead, yet the
most difficult years lay behind. Virginia now had a government that
made for stability under the governor, and the old settlers, who, a little
later, came to be called "Ancient Planters," had learned well by
Gates, after dealing with the Indians, left for England. Delaware, who
continued to live aboard ship for a time, called a Council, reorganized
the colonists, and directed operations to promote the welfare of the
colony, including the construction of two forts near Point Comfort. He
fell sick, however, and, after a long illness, was forced to leave James-
town and Virginia in March 1611, leaving the now veteran administrator,
George Percy, as governor in charge. With Delaware went Dr. Lawrence
Bohun, who had experimented extensively with the curative powers of
plants and herbs at Jamestown.
SIR thomas dale and military law. In May, Sir Thomas Dale, on
military leave from his post in the Low Countries, arrived as deputy gov-
ernor of Virginia. He proceeded to give form and substance to the martial
law which had been evoked by his predecessors. It led to rather complete
regimentation, and he was severely criticized for it later, particularly by
those hostile to his administration. He began by posting proclamations
"for the publique view" at Jamestown. Later, he thoroughly inspected
suitable settlement sites and surveyed conditions generally. He wrote,
on May 25, 1611, that on arrival at Jamestown he found ". . . no corn
sett, some few seeds put into a private garden or Two; but the cattle,
cows, goats, swine, Poultry &c to be well and carefully on all hands pre-
served and all in good plight and likeing." To get things in order at the
seat of government, one party was designated to repair the church, an-
other to work on the stable, another to build a wharf. When things
were reasonably well in hand at Jamestown, he made plans to push the
decision to open a new settlement above Jamestown which would be-
come the real center of the colony. The reasons for such a removal of
the seat of government are well known— not sufficient high land, poor
drinking water, too much marsh, and a location not far enough upstream
to be out of reach of the Spanish.
jamestown, 1611-16. Under Dale, from May 1611 to 1616, and under
Gates who replaced him for several years, beginning in August 1611,
the emphasis was away from Jamestown, but the capital was not actually
In 1612, "Master George Percie . . . [was busy] with the keeping of
Jamestown" while much of the colony had been "moved up river."
The first settlement was then looked upon as chiefly a place of safety
for hogs and cattle. In 1614, it was made up of "two faire rowes of
howses, all of framed Timber, two stories, and an vpper Garret or Corne
loft high, besides three large, and substantiall Storehowses ioyned to-
geather in length some hundred and twenty foot, and in breadth forty . . .
this town hath been lately newly, and strongly impaled, and a faire plat-
forme for Ordnance in the west Bulworke raised." Without the town
". . . in the Island [were] some very pleasant, and beutifull howses,
two Blockhouses . . . and certain other farme howses." In 1616, it was
a post of 50 under the command of Lt. John Sharpe, who was acting in
the absence of Capt. Francis West. Thirty-one of these were "farmors"
and all maintained themselves with "food and rayment."
The Gates- Dale 5-year administration (1611-16) actually saw Virginia
established as a going concern. The role of Dale in all of this seems to
have been a heavy one. Martial law brought order and uniformity in
operations and compelled the people to go to work. Dale saw to it that
corn was planted and harvested and that the laws were observed. He
made peace with the Indians.
So effective were Dale's measures that one of his contemporaries,
John Rolfe, wrote "whereupon a peace was concluded, which still con-
tinues so firme, that our people yearlely plant and reape quietly, and
travell in the woods a fowling and a hunting as freely and securely from
danger or treacherie as in England. The great blessings of God have fol-
lowed this peace, and it, next under him, hath bredd our plentie . . .".
All this was accomplished when the fortunes of the Virginia Company
were at a low point and little support was being sent to the colony. John
Rolfe then went on to predict that Dale's "worth and name . . . will
out last the standing of this plantation . . .".
Martial law, strictly administered at first, was gradually relaxed in ap-
plication as conditions stabilized, and within a few years Dale took the
step of granting 3-acre plots to private men for their enjoyment outside
of the common store. This was a big step in the evolution of the private
ownership of land. In the beginning, ownership was communal and
company controlled. In 1609, a future division of both land and profits
was anticipated, but it was about 1619 before individual grants were
made. A part of this evolution was the headright system of acquisition,
whereby persons were rewarded for venturing to Virginia themselves, or
their capital. Dale's grants of a semiprivate nature, about 1615, were a
step in this evolution as well. The headright system which developed at
Jamestown and on the banks of the James was later adapted in other
colonies and continued in use for generations.
Gates and Dale in their administration had the help of other enter-
prising and daring early Virginians. There was Capt. Samuel Argall
whose later work as governor of the colony has sometimes been criti-
cized, especially his handling of the company finances. This should not
becloud his earlier helpfulness in getting Virginia established. He
pioneered in making a direct crossing of the Atlantic to save time and to
avoid the Spanish, who now were fearful that the Virginia enterprise
might succeed and were sending spies to Virginia. (Some of these spies
were captured and interned at Jamestown.) Argall led in exploration,
both in Virginia waters and northward along the coastline. He was adept
at shipbuilding and in the Indian trade. It was evidently he who dis-
covered the best fishing seasons and the fact that the fish made "runs" in
the bay and in the rivers. He made an open attack on the French settle-
ments to the north in New England and Nova Scotia, returning to
Jamestown with his captives.
Pocahontas. While on a trading expedition on the Potomac, Argall
captured Pocahontas and brought her as a prisoner to Jamestown in an
attempt to deal with her father, Powhatan. Pocahontas was no stranger
at Jamestown. She had often visited there before, once in the spring of
1608 to seek some of her countrymen held as hostages in the fort
In 1613, Pocahontas was well received at Jamestown, where she had
not been for some time; and when her father refused to pay the price
asked for her ransom, she was detained. Later, she preferred life with
the English and did not wish to return to her native village. She was
placed under the tutelage of Rev. Alexander Whitaker who instructed
her in the Christian faith. Eventually Pocahontas was baptized. In April
1614, in the church at Jamestown, she married John Rolfe, one of the
settlers. This was a celebrated marriage that did much to improve rela-
tions with the Indians. About 1616, the couple went to England where
Pocahontas was entertained at court. She died there as she was about to
return to Virginia, in 1617, and her body rests at Gravesend. She had one
son, Thomas Rolfe, who later came to Virginia. Through him many
today can trace their ancestry to Pocahontas.
tobacco. After the death of Pocahontas, John Rolfe came back to Vir-
ginia alone to resume the work which he had begun there as early as
1610. Perhaps he continued his work with tobacco which had already
resulted in a plant that could compete in taste and quality with that
which had given the Spanish a monopoly of the tobacco market.
In the first years of the settlement every effort had been made to find
products in the New World that would assure financial success for the
settlers and the company. Pitch, tar, timber, sassafras, cedar, and other
natural products were sent in the returning ships. Attempts to produce
glass on a paying scale proved futile, as did early efforts to make silk,
using the native mulberry trees growing in abundance. The glass fur-
Monument to Pocahontas, by William Ordway Partridge, near the
entrance to Jamestown National Historic Site.
naces fell into disuse, and rats ate the silkworms. The native tobacco
plant, found growing wild was "... not of the best kind . . . [but was]
poore and weake, and of a byting tast . . ." and held little promise.
About 1610-11, the seed of a different species of the plant was im-
ported from Trinidad, then famous for the quality of its tobacco. Later
some came from Venezuela. These were planted and a process of selec-
tion and crossbreeding began which resulted in the commercially valuable
Virginia leaf. John Rolfe, a smoker himself, has been credited as the
pioneer English colonist in this experimentation.
In addition to the improvement of the plant, Rolfe was one of the
first regularly to grow tobacco for export and as such was the father of
the Virginia tobacco trade and industry. The first experimental ship-
ment of the newly developed Virginia leaf came about 1613, and because
of its pleasant taste it was well received in some quarters. Production
was slow for several years. Dale restricted its cultivation until basic com-
modities, such as corn, were well advanced. In the 1615-16 period only
2,300 pounds reached London from Virginia. Capt. George Yeardley,
the next to govern, gave the new crop his whole-hearted support, with
the result that in 1617 exports reached the 20,000 pound total, and by
1619 this had been more than doubled. Thus, a new trade and industry
were born in the colony, which proved to be the economic salvation
of Virginia, and provided a means for making slavery profitable. To-
bacco and slavery together led to the development of important char-
acteristics of the whole social, political, and economic structure of the
Old South. One of the immediate effects of tobacco culture in Virginia
was the impetus it gave to the expansion of the area of settlement and
to the number of settlers coming to Virginia.
the spread of settlement. Jamestown was planned as the first perma-
nent English settlement in Virginia. The fixed intention was to establish
other seats as soon as possible. As the limitations of Jamestown became
obvious, the desire for other townsites was intensified. Soon after the
settlement was made at Jamestown, temporary garrisons were placed at
outlying points for protective and administrative reasons— at Kecough-
Tobacco cultivation as practiced at Jamestown. (A conjectural paint-
ing by Sidney E. King.)
tan (Hampton- Newport News), Cape Henry, and at the falls of the
James. The first efforts in this direction, except at Kecoughtan, ended
in the autumn of 1609 under pressure from the Indians. With the arrival
of Delaware, Kecoughtan (renamed Elizabeth City in 1619) was estab-
lished as a permanent settlement. Dale and Gates went on to establish
the city of Henricus (Henrico) well up the James near the falls. Then
came Charles City (the earlier Bermuda Nether Hundred) which de-
veloped into the last of the four settlements established by the company,
each of which had the designation "city." These four settlements were
the only towns specifically set up by the company and consequently
under its complete control. These later came to be mentioned in the
records as the "Four Ancient Boroughs" or "four ancient Incorporations."
As one of these, Jamestown became the center of the political subdivision
that developed into one of the original Virginia shires in 1634. Within
the next decade the term county replaced that of shire, and today, al-
though Jamestown has ceased to exist as a corporate organization, James
City County continues to function as the oldest governing unit in
Although the four "cities" constituted the first settlements in Vir-
ginia and were the only ones established directly under company con-
trol, they were but the beginning. About 1616, a new plan gave rise to
the creation of settlements known as "particular plantations," some-
times called "hundreds" as a result of the practice of awarding land on
the basis of 100 acres or of sending settlers in groups of the same num-
ber. These were established with company permission, which included
a grant of land made to individual groups of stockholders organized for
the purpose of setting up a specific settlement. The first of these was
Martin's Hundred, in 1617, and others followed rapidly. By the summer
of 1619, there were seven particular plantations already functioning, in
adcfttion to the original "cities," a term sometimes thought to derive
from the form of government being used by the "City of Geneva" in
Switzerland which was held in high esteem by some of the company
officials, particularly by Sir Edwin Sandys who became Treasurer of the
Virginia Company in 1618.
With the spread of settlement east and west along the James and out-
ward along its rivers and creeks as well, Jamestown lay approximately
in the center of an expanding and growing colony. It was the capital
town and the principal center of the colony's social and political life.
In size it remained small, yet it was intimately and directly related to
all of the significant developments of the 17th century. Its physical
aspects changed with the evolution of 17th century architectural patterns
and designs. Life in the town was varied and perhaps representative of
the best in the colony for almost a century. As wealth accumulated, the
manner of living broadened and improved. There is strong evidence that
Jamestown was the first to feel the impact of the advantages and efforts
that this produced, particularly in the first half century of its existence.
Material progress is evident as early as 1619 in the letter of John Pory,
secretary of the colony, written from Virginia late in that year:
Nowe that your lordship may knowe, that we are not the variest
beggars in the worlde, our co we keeper here of James citty on Sun-
day goes accowtered all in freshe flaming silke; and a wife of one
that in England had professed the black arte, not of a schollar, but
of a collier of Croydon, weares her rough bever hatt with a faire
perle hatband, and a silken suite thereto correspondent.
THE BEGINNING OF REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT. In 1618, there were
internal changes in the Virginia Company that led to the resignation of
Sir Thomas Smith as treasurer, and to the election of Sir Edwin Sandys
as his successor. This roughly corresponded to changes in company
policy toward the administration of the colony and to intensified efforts
to develop Virginia. It led to the abolition of martial law, to the estab-
lishment of individual property ownership, and greater freedom and
participation in matters of government. Virginia already enjoyed a high
degree of religious freedom due, perhaps, to the fact that a number of
company officers were strongly under the influence of the puritan ele-
ment within the Church of England. This, together with the fact that
Virginia was not settled purely for religious reasons, caused less stress
to be put on absolute uniformity in church matters. Sir George Yeardley,
recently knighted, returned to Virginia as governor in April 1619, and
was the first spokesman in the colony for the new policy toward Vir-
ginia. In England it had been ably advanced on behalf of the colony by
Sir Edwin Sandys, the Earl of Southampton, and John and Nicholas
Soon after his arrival, Yeardley issued a call for a representative legis-
lative assembly which convened at Jamestown on July 30, 1619, and
remained in session until August 4. This was the earliest example ofour
present system of representative government in America. The full inten-
tions behind the moves that led to this historic meeting may never be
known. It seems to have been an attempt to give to the Englishmen in
America those rights and privileges of Englishmen that had been
guaranteed to them in the original company charter, rather than a
planned attempt to establish self-government in the New World on a
scale that might have been in violation of English law and custom at the
time. Whatever the motive, the significance of this meeting in the church
at Jamestown remains the same. This body of duly chosen representa-
tives of the people has continued in existence and its evolution leads
directly to our State legislatures and to the Congress of the United
developments, 1619-24. Another significant development of 1619 was
the sending by the company of maidens to Virginia to be wives of the
settlers. Although many women were already established with their
families in the Jamestown colony, the company recognized that homes
and children for all the men would be conducive to established family
life and permanent residence. Under this new project, the first maidens
arrived in May and June 1620. Others followed, as ships brought more
and more young women seeking their fortunes in Virginia.
The third momentous event in 1619 was the arrival of Negroes in a
Dutch warship. They remained in Virginia, some finding homes, and
some as indentured servants even as some white men were at that time.
Nevertheless, this first arrival of Negroes was to lead to the introduc-
tion of slavery into the colony. It was more than a generation before
the institution of slavery began to be entrenched as the backbone of
the economic life in Virginia, yet this event of 1619 was the first move
in that direction.
Under Dale, the emphasis on colonization was away from Jamestown,
yet later governors found the original seat desirable. Capt. Samuel Argall,
who succeeded Yeardley as deputy governor in 1617, wrote that he ad-
vanced physical improvements prior to his hasty withdrawal from
Virginia in the spring of 1619 to avoid arrest under charges of mis-
management of company affairs. Argall had been the first to prescribe
limits for Jamestown. Yeardley followed him as governor, and for the
next few years Jamestown, at this time most often called "James City,"
witnessed considerable growth and activity. The town, long before, had
expanded outside of the fort and spread along the shore on the extreme
A typical view of the landscape on Jamestown Island. The high ground
is principally along low ridges, sometimes called "fingers," divided by
marshes or very low ground.
west end of the island. The borough or incorporation, of which it was
the center, extended west to the Chickahominy River and downriver
beyond Hog Island. Its territory was along the north side of the river and
included the south side as well — the area that later became Surry County.
West toward the Chickahominy the area adjacent to Jamestown Island
became rather heavily developed and was referred to as the "Suburbs of
The period from 1619 to 1624 was one of considerable activity for
Virginia in general and Jamestown in particular. The reorganized Vir-
ginia Company, following its political changes, renewed its efforts to
expand the colony and to stimulate profitable employment. Heavy
emphasis was placed on new industries, particularly iron and glass, the
latter evidently attempted a second time on Glasshouse Point. The
planting of mulberry trees and the growing of silkworms were advanced
by the dispatch of treatises on silk culture and silkworm eggs in a
project in which King James I himself had a personal interest. Immigra-
tion to the colony was increased, and measures were taken to meet the
religious and educational needs of the settlers. This was the period that
saw the attempt to establish a college at Henrico.
The industrial and manufacturing efforts of these years, however, were
not destined to succeed. This condition was not due to any laxity on the
part of George Sandys, resident treasurer in Virginia, who was some-
thing of an economic on-the-spot supervisor for the company. Virginia
could not yet support these projects profitably, and interest was lacking
on the part of the planters who found in tobacco a source of wealth
superior to anything else that had been tried. Tobacco was profitable,
and it was grown, at times, even in the streets of Jamestown. It was the
profit from tobacco that supported the improved living conditions that
came throughout the colony.
These Englishmen who came to settle in the wilderness retained their
desire for the advantages of life in England. Books, for example, were
highly valued, and with the passage of the years were no uncommon
commodity in Virginia. As early as 1608, Rev. Robert Hunt had a
library at Jamestown, which was consumed by fire in January of that
year. Each new group of colonists seemingly added to the store on
hand— Bibles, Books of Common Prayer, other religious works, medical
and scientific treatises, legal publications, accounts of gardening, and
such. In 1621, the company wrote to the colonial officials regarding
works for a new minister being sent to the colony that: "As for bookes
we doubt not but you wilbe able to supplie him out of the lybraries of
so many that have died." By this date there was local literary effort, too,
such as that by Treasurer George Sandys who continued his celebrated
translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses in the house of William Pierce at
Jamestown. Then, too, in March 1623, a gentleman of the colony sent
from "lames his Towne" the ballad "Good Newes from Virginia" in
which, among other things, he describes the arrival of the governor's
wife at Jamestown and uses this to prod others to support the colony
and to settle in Virginia.
But last of all that Lady f aire,
that woman worth renoune:
That left her Country and her friends,
to grace braue lames his towne.
The wife unto our Gouernour,
did safely here ariue:
With many gallants following her,
whom Godpreserue aliue.
What man would stay when Ladies gay,
both Hues and fortunes leaues:
To taste what we haue truely sowne,
truth never man deceaues.
(From The William and Mary Quarterly,
3rd Ser., V, 357-8)
"new towne." It is in the 1619 to 1624 period that the first clear picture
of Jamestown emerges, for this period corresponds with the earliest
known property records that exist. The town had outgrown the original
fort in some years past and now appeared as a fairly nourishing settle-
ment. The records reveal that many of the property owners were yeomen,
merchants, carpenters, hog-raisers, farmers, joiners, shopkeepers, and
ordinary "fellows," as well as governors and colonial officials. The "New
Towne" section of James City developed in this period as the old section
proved too small and the residents began to build more substantial
houses, principally frame on brick foundations. The Indian massacre of
1622, that wrought such heavy devastation in the colony, did not
reach Jamestown which was warned through the efforts of the Indian,
Chanco. It did temporarily cause congestion in the Jamestown area,
however, as the survivors from the more distant settlements fell back
for safety and to regroup. The punitive Indian campaigns that followed
were directed from Jamestown by the governor, who resided there.
The population figures taken in these years give a good idea of the
size of Jamestown in this period. In February 1624, it is recorded that
183 persons were living in Jamestown and 35 others on the island out-
side of the town. These are listed by name, as are the 87 who died be-
tween April 1623 and the following February. The death toll suggests
that the mortality rate was continuing high and that it was still difficult
for newcomers to adapt themselves to the Virginia environment. In the
"census" of January 1625, a total of 124 residents are listed for "James
Citty" and an additional 51 for the island. In the over-all total of 175,
122 were males and 53, females. At that time, Governor Sir Francis
Wyatt and former Governor Yeardley had two of the largest musters
for the town, which included women, children, indentured servants, and
Negroes. Nine Negroes were listed for Jamestown and the island,
evidently some of those brought there in 1619.
Aside from the population statistics, the musters of January 1625 give
much more information. Jamestown had a church, a court-of-guard
(guardhouse), 3 stores, a merchant's store, and 33 houses. Ten of the
colony's 40 boats were here, including a skiff, a "shallop" of 4 tons, and
a "barque" of 40 tons. There were stores offish (24,880 pounds to be
exact), corn, peas, and meal. There were four pieces of ordnance, sup-
plies of powder, shot and lead, and, for individual use, "fixt peeces,"
snaphances, pistols, swords (to the number of 70), coats of mail, quilted
coats, and suits of armor (35 of them complete). The bulk of the
colony's livestock seems to have been localized in the Jamestown area—
about half (183) of the cattle, a little more than half (265) of the hogs,
and well over half (126) of the goats. The one horse listed for the
colony was at Jamestown.
The "census" clearly indicates that the population of Jamestown was
not keeping pace with that of the colony. The needs of tobacco culture-
open fields and new soil— and the abundance of navigable waters in the
rivers, bays, and creeks of tidewater Virginia led to a scattered popula-
tion, based on the plantation system. These factors prevented the rise of
trade centers and large towns for almost a century, despite the best efforts
of both home and colonial officials. The idea was to make Jamestown
the center of social, political, and economic life and to develop it into
a city of some proportions. In size, it never attained that of a city and it
failed to dominate trade and commerce. It was, however, the hub of
political and social life for as long as it was the capital of Virginia— 92
years. Hence, its story is vital to an understanding of American begin-
nings. Its citizens, in their daily life and work, developed the origins of
many of our institutions, styles, and customs in speech, in architecture,
in dress, and in government organization.
Virginia made A royal colony. The Virginia Company established
the first permanent English settlement in America, but did not reap the
profits that it had expected. Despite reorganization and large expendi-
tures, it never achieved its full objective and was increasingly subject to
criticism. Matters reached a head in 1624 when James I dissolved the
company, thereby removing the hand that had guided Virginia affairs
for 17 years. With this act Virginia became a royal colony and continued
as such until the American Revolution made it free and independent.
From the point of view of operations in the colony the change was
The remains of a brick and tile kiln (c. 1650 ) found at Jamestown.
This is the best preserved and most complete of several kilns that have
been uncovered, showing that the Jamestown residents manufactured
many of their bricks and roofing tiles.
almost painless although there was concern over land titles and a con-
tinuance of the assembly which had already voiced its feeling on taxa-
tion without representation. The company governor gave way to the
royal appointee, but most institutions were left intact.
Sir Francis Wyatt was the last company governor, and he continued
in office for a while as royal governor. When he left for England, in
1626, Yeardley again became governor and served until he died at James-
town the next year. Capt. Francis West was named to the post as deputy.
Another deputy, Dr. John Pott, followed next in turn, and he was
replaced by the royal appointee, Sir John Harvey.
governor harvey DEPOSED. Sir John Harvey first came to Virginia in
1624 as a member of a committee to report on conditions in the colony.
It was in 1630 that he returned as royal governor and settled himself at
'James cittie, the seate of the Governor." In 1632, he had a commodious
house here and was complaining of the expense of the entertainment that
he had to finance in "the Governors owne house." Whether because of
his personal nature, his own view or interpretation of government, or
because of the severe opposition that confronted him, he managed to
become thoroughly disliked throughout the colony. His high-handed
and autocratic methods arrayed even his council against him.
403767 O-F-56 4
In the end, his council, in meetings at Jamestown, moved to depose
him, naming another to act in his stead— a bold measure, indeed. The
assembly, in May 1635, approved this action, and Harvey was returned
to England to answer the charges placed against him there. The King,
it is true, returned Harvey to his post as royal governor in 1637, but un-
doubtedly both he and Harvey were impressed by the action that the
colonists had taken to redress their grievances— they had deposed a
brick architecture. When Governor Harvey reached Jamestown in
January 1637 he made a special effort to promote the growth of the
town. The assembly passed an act offering a "portion of land for a house
and garden" to every person who would undertake to build on it within
2 years. This was the beginning of considerable activity at Jamestown.
A number of new patents were issued, and, in January 1639, the gov-
ernor and his council could report that 12 houses and stores had been
constructed and others had been begun. One of those already built was
the house of Richard Kemp, secretary of the colony. His house was
described as "one of brick" and "the fairest ever known in this coun-
try for substance and uniformity." Kemp's house is the earliest all-brick
house in Virginia that it has been possible to date conclusively up to
the present time. It was in 1639, too, that the first brick church was be-
gun, and a levy was collected for the acquisition of a statehouse. Among
the new land holders at Jamestown in this period of activity were Capt.
Thomas Hill, Rev. Thomas Hampton, and Alexander Stoner, a "brick-
maker." As the area along the river was occupied, additional patentees
obtained holdings just outside of the town proper and others settled in
the few lots that were not in use. Sir William Berkeley, who became
governor in 164 1, continued the emphasis on the construction of sub-
stantial houses. In that same year, the colony acquired its first State-
house, formerly the property of Harvey and a building in which public
business had been transacted for, perhaps, as much as 10 years.
In March 1646, measures were taken to discourage the sale of liquors
on the island, and a system of licensed ordinary keepers was adopted.
Later in the year, houses for the encouragement of linen manufacture
were projected for Jamestown. In 1649, the General Assembly estab-
lished a market and near the market area was the landing for the ferry
that ran across the James to Surry County. Even this new action, how-
ever, failed to develop a town of any great extent. The same was true
of the Act of 1662 which attempted to encourage a substantial building
program for the capital town. Only a few houses were erected before the
new impetus had spent itself, and, in 1676, it is known that the town was
still little more than a large village. One of the more detailed descrip-
tions at this time relates that "The Towne . . . [extended] east and west,
about 3 quarters of a mile . . . [and] comprehended som[e] 16 or 18
houses, most as is the church built of brick, faire and large; and in them
about a dozen families (for all the howses are not inhabited) getting
their liveings by keeping of ordnaries, at extreordnary rates."
the commonwealth period. The decade of 1650-60 corresponds
to the period of the Commonwealth Government in England. Vir-
ginia, for the most part, appeared loyal to the crown, yet in 1652 the
colony submitted to the new government when it demonstrated its
power before Jamestown. Governor Berkeley withdrew to his home at
Green Spring, just above Jamestown, and the General Assembly assumed
the governing role, acting under the Parliament of England. Virginia
was given liberal treatment, with considerable freedom in taxation and
matters of government. The governors in this interval, elected by the
assembly, were Richard Bennett, Edward Digges (an active supporter
of the production of silk in Virginia), and Samuel Mathews. In 1660,
on the death of Mathews, the assembly recalled Berkeley to the gov-
ernor's office, an act that was approved by Charles II, who was restored
to the English throne in that year. The decade passed quietly for the
colony, although, in the years that followed, it had occasion to remember
the liberal control that it had enjoyed. It had witnessed an increased
wave of immigration that brought some of those who were fleeing from
England, and this more than offset the loss of the Puritans whom Berke-
ley had forced out of the colony prior to 1650.
In matters of religion, Virginia continued loyal to the Church of Eng-
land, although there was considerable freedom for the individual. The
Puritans found it uncomfortable to remain, however, and two Quaker
preachers, William Cole and George Wilson, soon found themselves
in prison at Jamestown. Writing "From that dirty dungeon in James-
town," in 1662, they described the prison as a place ". . . where we have
not the benefit to do what nature requireth, nor so much as air, to blow
in at a window, but close made up with brick and lime. ..." Lord Balti-
more (George Calvert) did not find the colony hospitable when he
visited Jamestown with his family in 1629, for, being a Roman Catholic,
he could not take the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy which denied
the authority of the Pope.
bacon's rebellion, 1676-77. Bacon's Rebellion, one of the most dra-
matic episodes in the history of the English colonies, stands out as a
highlight in 17th-century Virginia. It broke in spectacular fashion
and is often hailed as a forerunner of the Revolution. It constituted the
only serious civil disturbance experienced by Virginia during its entire
life as a British colony. It occupies a prominent spot in the annals of
the times, and in any chronicle of Jamestown its significance can be mul-
tiplied many times, for a number of its stirring events took place at the
seat of government and resulted in excessive physical destruction in the
The rebellion had its origin in Indian frontier difficulties and a royal
Governor (Sir William Berkeley) who, possibly as a result of his in-
volvement in the Indian trade, had become somewhat dictatorial, tyran-
nical, and a firm advocate of the status quo. The leader for the exposed
frontiersmen and the generally disgruntled Virginians came in the per-
son of Nathaniel Bacon, a young man of good birth, training, and educa-
tion who had come to Virginia in 1674. A distant kinsman of Lord
Chancellor Francis Bacon and a relative of another Nathaniel Bacon,
who was a leading citizen of Virginia, he soon became established as a
first-rate planter at Curies, in Henrico County, and was admitted to the
Governor's Council not long after his arrival.
Considerable underlying discontent had been aroused in Virginia by
the low prices for tobacco, the cumulative effects of the Navigation
Acts, high taxes, and autocratic rule by Berkeley, whose loyal support-
ers permeated the government structure and had not allowed an election
of burgesses for 15 years. The spark came from the depredations of the
Susquehanna Indians who were being forced south by the powerful Iro-
quois. They made attacks all along the Virginia frontier. Berkeley ordered
a counterattack, but cancelled it in favor of maintaining a system of
forts along the edge of the western settlements. In March 1676, the
Assembly at Jamestown made plans for new forts; this measure, how-
ever, was both time-consuming and ineffective. Among the leaders who
assembled at the falls of the James for consultation regarding the Indian
menace was the young Nathaniel Bacon. William Byrd I was there, too,
and, even though he was the officer who had been named to guard the
frontier, Bacon was placed in command of the men sent to attack the
enemy Indians. A messenger left to request a commission for him from
the governor. Berkeley replied that he would discuss the matter with his
Council. Bacon then set out with his men to collect allies from among
the friendly Indians. While Bacon was on the march he received word
from Berkeley ordering him to return or be declared a rebel. Bacon did
not turn back but continued into the wilderness in search of the enemy.
Action came at Occaneechee Island. Bacon returned with captives and
was hailed as a hero by those who had heard of his exploits.
Governor Berkeley realized that the situation was becoming critical and
that he could lose control of his government. Prompt action was neces-
sary. He dissolved the House of Burgesses and ordered a new election.
The result was that many of his loyal adherents were replaced by repre-
sentatives, some of whom were unfriendly, even hostile, to him. The new
assembly convened in the statehouse at "James Citty" on June 5, 1676,
and among the burgesses was the defiant Bacon who had been returned
by the voters of Henrico. An announced rebel and not yet formally re-
moved from the council, it is doubtful that he was eligible for his seat,
yet he determined to go to Jamestown and present his credentials.
He boarded his sloop, accompanied by about 40 supporters, and sailed
down the James. When near Jamestown he sent ahead to inquire whether
he would be allowed to enter the town in peace. A shot from a cannon
in the fort gave the negative answer. Despite this, Bacon secretly went
ashore at night to confer with two of his friends then living in James-
town—William Drummond, a former governor in Carolina, and Richard
Lawrence, a former Oxford student. Later that night he returned to his
boat and started back up the James, but was taken by an officer whom
Berkeley had sent out to apprehend him. A dramatic scene followed at
Bacon was brought before the governor, paroled, and restored to the
council. Berkeley knew that his opponent had the upper hand and that
the House of Burgesses, then in session, was against him. Bacon seem-
ingly could have remained in the capital and personally directed a full
program of economic and political reform. This evidently was not his
aim. He demanded a commission to go against the Indians, and, when
Berkeley delayed, he disappeared from Jamestown, later saying that his
person was in danger, although this appears unlikely. Bacon now en-
tered a course from which he could not turn back. With a sizable group
of supporters, on June 23, he returned again to Jamestown. He crossed
the isthmus ". . . there le[a]veing a party to secure the passage, then
marched into Towne, . . . [sent] partyes to the ferry, River & fort,
& . . . [drew] his forces against the state house." In the face of this
show of force, the governor gave him a commission, and the burgesses
passed measures designed to correct many old abuses. Among the new
laws was one establishing the bounds of Jamestown to include the
entire island and giving the residents within these bounds the right, for
the first time, to make their own local ordinances.
By this time Bacon and his men were arrayed solidly against both
governor and royal government. The issue was defeat or independence
for Virginia, but Virginia was not yet ready and did not elect to face the
issue. Bacon, it seems, wanted extreme measures, and there is evidence
to indicate that he visualized the formation of an American Republic.
Yet when Bacon established himself as the opponent of royal govern-
ment in Virginia and subordinated his role as supporter of the frontier
settlers against misrule, he lost popular support. Had he lived and suc-
ceeded in arms, it is questionable that the people would have backed
him, for they had not shown much disposition to defy royal authority.
The discontent at this time was not so much against that authority as
against the misuse of it by Sir William Berkeley.
The issues having been drawn, Bacon pursued his course to the bitter
end. He returned to Henrico. When about to move a second time against
the Indians, news came that Berkeley was attempting to raise troops in
Gloucester County. Consequently, it was to Gloucester that Bacon first
moved, onlv to find that his opponent had withdrawn to Accomac, on
the Eastern Shore of Virginia. On August 1, at Middle Plantation (later
Williamsburg), Bacon sought to administer his oath of loyalty and to an-
nounce his "Declaration of the People" to those assembled there at his
summons. His next move was against the Pamunkey Indians. Then it
seemed necessary that he move again on Berkeley who now had returned
On September 13, 1676, he drew up his "few weake and Tyr'd [tired]"
men in the "Green Spring Old Field," just above Jamestown, and posted
lookouts on Glasshouse Point. Then he ordered the construction of a
trench across the island end of the isthmus. A raiding party advanced
as far as the palisade, near the edge of Jamestown proper. Berkeley
ordered several ships brought up as close to the shore as possible. Their
guns and the small arms of the men along the palisades opened fire
against Bacon, but proved ineffective in routing him from his entrench-
ments. On September 15, Berkeley organized a sally, "with horse and
foote in the Van," which retreated under hot fire from Bacon's entrench-
ments. At this point Berkeley's force lost heart, while his opponent's
spirit reached a new high. In any event, after a week of siege, the gov-
ernor felt compelled to withdraw from Jamestown. This he did, by boat,
A prepared drawing of the plat of a survey made for William Sherwood
at Jamestown in 1680. "Roades" indicates the course of the "Greate
Road" that connected the town with the mainland. On the left the
isthmus that joined the "Island" to Glasshouse Point is shown.
with many of his supporters. This was the high point of Bacon's for-
tune in arms, and a costly one. Seemingly, it was during the fatiguing
siege, which came "in a wett Season," that he contracted the illness that
caused his death and brought an abrupt end to the rebellion.
Following Berkeley's withdrawal, Bacon and his tired force marched
into Jamestown for rest. Wholesale destruction followed. As a contem-
porary put it, "Here resting a few daies they concerted the burning of
the town, wherein Mr. Laurence [Richard Lawrence] and Mr. [William]
Drummond owning the two best houses save one, set fire each to his
own house, which example the souldiers following laid the whole town
(with church and State house) in ashes. . . ." It is known from the rec-
ords that the destruction was systematic and that the town suffered
heavily from the burning. Among those losing homes and possessions
of high value were Col. Thomas Swann, Maj. Theophilus Hone "high
sheriff of Jamestown," William Sherwood, and Mr. James' "orphan,"
the last to the value of £1,000. It was estimated that total losses reached
a value of 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco. Again the idea was advanced to
move the seat of government from Jamestown to some more desirable
location. A little later, Tindall's (now Gloucester) Point, on the York,
was given preferential consideration by the assembly as a fit location.
The move was not made, however, and the capital remained at James-
town for another quarter of a century.
From Jamestown, Berkeley moved once more to the Eastern Shore.
Bacon, whose men pillaged Green Spring (Berkeley's home on the main-
land, just above Jamestown) on the way, marched to Gloucester, where
he became ill and died on October 26, 1676. The rebellion, now without
a real leader, quickly collapsed. Joseph Ingram, successor to Bacon, and
Gregory Wakelett, cavalry leader in Gloucester County, surrendered in
January 1677; Lawrence disappeared in the Chickahominy marshes; and
Drummond was promptly hanged. Berkeley moved with haste to silence
his opponents, making ready use of the death sentence.
Accommodations for the conduct of government were now wholly
inadequate at Jamestown. Consequently, Berkeley called the assembly
to meet at Green Spring, which functioned for a time almost as the
temporary capital. In February 1677, the commissioners who were sent
to investigate Bacon's Rebellion arrived in Virginia. With them came
about 1,000 troops who encamped at Jamestown for the remainder of
the winter and ensuing spring. The commissioners, among them Col.
Herbert Jeffreys, the next governor, finding so much ruin and desolation
at Jamestown, made their headquarters in the home of Col. Thomas
Swann across the James from the capital town. Berkeley left for England
in May, and Jeffreys took control in Virginia. It was not until March
1679, however, that definite action (following a recommendation of the
investigating commissioners) was taken for the restoration of Jamestown.
Then it was ordered, in England, that the town be rebuilt and made the
metropolis of Virginia "as the most ancient and convenient place."
A section from the "Plan du Terrein a la Rive Gauche de la Riviere
de James vis-a-vis James-Town en Virginie ..." done by Colonel
Desandrouins, of the French Army, in 1781.
Jamestown rebuilt. Lord Culpeper reached Virginia in May 1680,
with instructions to rebuild Jamestown and to develop it into an urban
center. In 1683, he was able to report that he had given all possible en-
couragement to this enterprise and that, although he himself was living
at Green Spring, considerable activity had begun. He mentioned specifi-
cally that Nathaniel Bacon (the kinsman of the rebel), Joseph Bridger,
and William Sherwood had substantial work under way. A little later
the fourth statehouse was completed, as was the church. By 1697 the
town had been rebuilt and boasted of a statehouse, country house, church,
fort, powder magazine, and 20 or 30 houses. In this period William Sher-
wood, for a time attorney general for the colony, was a major landholder
on the island and in the town. Others included Robert Beverley, author
of one of the early histories of Virginia; William Edwards, clerk of the
Council; Henry Hartwell; and John Page. It was in 1686 that John
Clayton, minister at Jamestown, offered proposals for draining the
marshes nearby to improve the healthfulness of the spot, a project that
statehouse burned and capital moved. On October 31, 1698, a fire
consumed the statehouse, prison, and probably other buildings at James-
town, although the records and papers were saved. This fire led to the
removal of the seat of government to Middle Plantation (Williams-
burg)— a spot favored by the Governor, Sir Francis Nicholson. Thus,
Jamestown was abandoned as the seat of government after 92 years.
Its mission had been accomplished, and it had seen Virginia grow
from the small settlement of 1607 into a colony of great extent, with a
population of perhaps 80,000.
later years AT Jamestown. The removal of the capital ultimately
proved the death blow for Jamestown, for this eliminated the primary
reason for its existence. Decline set in immediately, but Jamestown re-
tained a seat in the assembly for another three-quarters of a century.
Its end as a town, legally and physically, may be given as the period
of the American Revolution. There was a military post here early in
that struggle. Later, it became a point of exchange for American and
British prisoners of war, and it featured in the maneuvers leading to the
Siege of Yorktown. It witnessed the movement of Cornwallis' army
across the James and was a landing and resting point for American and
French soldiers being sent to join Washington's allied army.
Even before 1700, property on Jamestown Island was being con-
solidated into a few hands. The consolidation continued unabated after
this date, and before the middle of the 18th century the major part of
the island was in the hands of two families— Ambler and Travis— each
of which had its own "mansion." The Travis family estate at James-
town had grown slowly since before 1650, and Richard Ambler, of
A watercolor by Robert M. Sully showing the shoreline at Jamestown
in 1854 at a point just above the Old Church Tower. In this period
erosion was slowly destroying the west end of the site of "Old James
Towne." (Original in the collection of the late Miss Julia Sully,
Yorktown, acquired, through marriage, the extensive Jaquelin, formerly
Sherwood, holdings. After 1830, the island came under a single owner-
ship. Under the Amblers and Travises and later owners of the island,
even parts of the townsite itself became farm land and functioned as
an integral part of the plantation system which earlier events at James-
town had helped so materially to create.
The fields, and woods, and marshes lay quietly on the James for gen-
erations, contributing in a small, but important, manner to a growing
country. Americans often remembered the early years of the colony and
the momentous events that had taken place on the island, and joined
here to commemorate the deeds of their forefathers. There was the
Bicentennial of 1807, the Virginiad of 1822, the 250th anniversary in
1857, and the Tercentennial of 1907. In the years between these events
there were thousands who came individually and in small groups, the
famous and those now unknown. It was this remembrance and loyalty
to one of its great landmarks that led to the establishment of Jamestown
Island as a national historic shrine.
Jamestown National Historic Site
The first organized effort toward saving the Jamestown area came in
1893 when the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities
acquired 22.5 acres of the old townsite. This land, donated for preserva-
tion by Mr. and Mrs. Edward E. Barney, embraced the Old Church
Tower, the graveyard, and the west end of the townsite.
The Association which was chartered in 1889 is better known, per-
haps, as the APVA. It is a non-profit organization interested in the
acquisition, preservation, and restoration of "ancient historic grounds,
buildings, monuments, and tombs in the Commonwealth of Virginia"
and in the collection and care of relics associated with them or with
the history of the State. Its Jamestown property is one of a number of
holdings which it administers. Another is the 17th-century Warren
House on the Rolfe property in Surry County just across the James
River from Jamestown.
Until 1934 the Association was the sole active agency working at
Jamestown to conserve and interpret the site for the American people.
As the custodian of a significant part of the site of old "James Towne,"
it continues working to promote measures insuring the protection of
the site and making it available for your use and inspiration. Land-
scaping, limited reconstruction, some restoration, and the stabilization
of the remains of the Old Church Tower, the tombs, and foundations
have all been a part of its program; together with the acquisition and
display of Jamestown relics. In its work, it has solicited and received
aid from various organizations, particularly patriotic societies, in the
placement of memorials, and related activities. The Memorial Church
was constructed by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of
America. The Association was especially active in preparation for the
Jamestown Exposition in 1907.
The Association was successful in its efforts to encourage the United
States Government to construct the seawall which was built by Col.
Samuel H. Yonge in 1900-1901 to halt bank erosion by the James River
along the Association grounds. Colonel Yonge became a serious student
of Jamestown history and wrote The Site of Old "James Towne," 1607-
1698, a work still available through purchase from the Association.
In 1907, the Association made available the grounds on which the
Tercentenary Monument was erected, and again in 1956 it provided land
on which to place the Jamestown Visitor Center.
In 1940 the Association entered into agreement with the United States
of America, through the Secretary of the Interior, to provide for a unified
program of development and administration for the island. It was at this
time that the APVA grounds were designated as Jamestown National
Historic Site. The joint cooperative agreement continues in force and
the Association and the National Park Service are working together to
preserve, maintain, and interpret this historic area.
In 1956 it became possible to present the townsite as a single unit
when the ferry to the island and the State highway crossing the island
were moved upriver above Jamestown. The APVA and the Service then
combined their separate museum exhibits to form the displays now
seen in the Visitor Center, and consolidated other operations at the
center where both are hosts to Jamestown visitors.
Early ceramic types found in the excavations.
Colonial National Historical Park
In 1930, by Presidential proclamation, all of Jamestown Island's 1,559.5
acres (equally divided between marsh and dry land) were included
within the boundaries of Colonial National Monument. The monu-
ment designation was changed to that of a national historical park by
act of Congress in 1936. Actual Federal ownership of the island (other
than the 22-acre Association tract) was obtained in 1934, and some years
later, a bit of the mainland opposite the western tip of Jamestown was
added because of its close ties to the site.
Colonial National Historical Park is made up of several areas of
which Jamestown is one. It includes, as well, the Cape Henry Memorial,
at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, where the first settlers who estab-
lished Jamestown first stopped in Virginia; the Yorktown Battlefield;
and the Colonial Parkway.
This 23-mile scenic motor road connects historic Jamestown, Williams-
burg, and Yorktown. Along its course are descriptive markers that give
bits of history which often show the interrelation of Jamestown (where
the Nation began), Williamsburg (the 18th-century capital of Virginia
where important elements of our Revolutionary leadership were
nourished), and Yorktown (where the climatic battle in our struggle
for independence was fought).
The Study of Jamestown
When the major part of Jamestown Island, including much of the town-
site, was placed in its custody in 1934, the National Park Service,
working with the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiqui-
ties, assumed responsibility for preservation of the historic remains on
the island and for interpreting the site. This posed many problems, for
the Jamestown story is a vital segment of our national history, involv-
ing the origins and growth of the culture of this formative period of
English colonization. The first pressing concern was the accumulation
of data on which to base a more complete understanding of life and
conditions as they existed at that time, specifically at Jamestown. This
was needed in order to plan for the preservation, development, and
interpretation of the area.
A program was drawn up which combined the various types of
research that the conditions and problems at Jamestown required. The
overall objective was to secure and preserve all possible data on James-
town history (giving history its broadest interpretation), and to gain
a well-rounded picture of the growth of agriculture, industry, com-
merce,; and society during the period Jamestown was inhabited.
Trained historians began to search in the leading libraries of the
country. At Jamestown, engineers and archeologists, assisted by his-
torians, architects, and museum technicians, began to survey the island.
Little of the old town existed aboveground, yet it was known that there
were, in all probability, extensive remains underground. Systematic
excavation was begun on the townsite on July 11, 1934.
In the beginning, it was recognized that the program would be of
long duration. Initially, in the years prior to World War II, the sup-
port of the Emergency Conservation Work (ECW) and the Civilian
Conservation Corps (CCC) proved invaluable. Work all but ceased
during the war years and went on at a very slow rate in the years just
after the war. The program was renewed with vigor in 1954 as plans
for Jamestown's 350th anniversary began to materialize.
On June 1, 1938, a field laboratory and storage building to house
the Jamestown activities was completed, giving the project an adequate
physical plant. It soon came to house thousands of cultural objects and
included offices as well as facilities for cleaning, sorting, storing, and
cataloguing excavated materials. This temporary building served the
need for study, and later for interpretation, until it was removed early
in 1957. It was replaced, although on a different site, by the Jamestown
Visitor Center early in 1957.
Excavation in progress at Jamestown in 1955.
Lighting equipment as used
at Jamestown. (These objects
were excavated on the site.)
The findings of the program have been extensive. Documentary study
has gleaned data which, when carefully examined, yields a more com-
plete picture of 17th-century Jamestown than was thought possible.
However, the picture is sketchy and needs the details filled in. For this
reason, research continues in anticipation of bridging the gaps.
Archeological work proved more fruitful than the most optimistic had
anticipated during the initial phases of the work. The materials and in-
formation found beneath the ground at Jamestown have been astonish-
ing in both quantity and type. Architectural and constructural findings
are of various types. More than a hundred building-remains have been
excavated. Some are only the footings for a frame structure, some are
brick foundations in full outline, and others are well-preserved cellars
with interesting structural detail. Associated with the sites are fragments
of hardware, glass, roofing tile, and related building materials. Some of
the building remains are those of the most prominent structures at
Jamestown, such as statehouses and governors' houses. Brick kilns have
been found, one being the well-preserved ruins in the Association
grounds, showing clearly that 17th-century Virginians made much of
their own brick and roofing tile. Pottery manufacture has been docu-
mented as well as other such activities. Several types of early wells, often
brick-lined, have yielded many objects dropped in accidentally, or by
design, while they were still in use.
Even road traces still exist. Some of them, considered in the light of
documentary references, have made it possible to reestablish the route of
the "Greate Road" formerly connecting the island and the mainland.
The reopening of old property line ditches and the rediscovery of fence
lines (by identifying old post holes) have aided immeasurably in locat-
ing property tracts. This information, added to that of the old land
grants and survey plats, has made possible the location of many early
landholdings and has helped in the study of the physical layout of the
town. Other features uncovered include lime kilns, where the early
Jamestown builders burned their own lime for plaster— occasionally
found still clinging to basement walls— and brick drains.
The number and variety of objects found in the excavations can only
be indicated in general terms. The great bulk of thousands of items now
collected is made up of pieces of iron, copper, brass, bronze, pewter, clay,
and earth. Occasionally some more perishable materials, such as wool,
leather, and wood, are found. Among the more interesting finds are clay
tobacco pipes, glass wine bottles, pottery vessels, Delft tiles, gun and
sword fragments, bullets, cannon balls, spurs, bits of armor, stirrups and
bridles, locks, keys, nails, spoons, forks, shears, pins, thimbles, axes, hoes,
window glass, buckles, combs, and rings. A complete list would be much
longer. Often only fragments remain, yet in many cases it is possible to
make a full restoration of the original piece, such as has been done with
a clay baking oven. A special illustrated publication is available, in pop-
ular style, describing the archeological work and the collection.
Individually and collectively, these objects give us an insight into the
manner in which 17th-century Jamestown men and their families lived.
In early Jamestown, water came from shallow wells which often had
a barrel at the bottom such as this found still in place.
Sgraffito— often called "scratch" ware since the design was scratched
into the upper layer of pliable clay before it was baked— is one of
the most common 1 7th-century ceramic types found at Jamestown.
These objects will help you get a more complete picture of the first Vir-
ginians—how they dressed, worked, built and equipped their homes, and
satisfied their daily needs.
The Development of Jamestown
No attempt will be made to restore Jamestown as it was in 1607 or at
any other period. The town was always small and always changing.
Jamestown, it might be said, was never a city in the modern concept. It
was more a village, a small community. The town of 1607, or 1610, was
unlike that of 1623, and that of 1623 was far different from that of 1675.
Architecture went all the way from timber and thatch structures to sub-
stantial all-brick houses. Even if the town had had a reasonable contin-
uity of building types and plan, known information would be entirely
insufficient to allow a restoration. Major discoveries of new material are
still expected, yet the detail necessary for an authentic restoration may
always be too meager.
The site of old "James Towne" has, however, retained much of the
spirit of its antiquity. Its serene and peaceful atmosphere seems to take
one back through the years. You may be able, for a moment, to disasso-
ciate yourself from the swift pace of present living as you wander past
the old foundations and look upon the Old Church Tower.
The National Park Service, following the precedent established by the
Association, is endeavoring to preserve this unbroken link with the past.
The emphasis is on the presentation of the townsite itself and the island
wilderness as the real exhibit. There are "streets" and winding paths, ex-
posed and marked foundations, existing remains, paintings of buildings
and scenes, property markings (old ditches, fences of period design, and
hedges), and natural planting. Shaded vistas and secluded points for
quiet reflection are provided as much as possible. Some use is being made
of period-type buildings (but not specific reconstructions) as in the
"glasshouse" with its thatch, wattle and daub, and "cruck" design.
Physical features of the 17th century have not survived at Jamestown
in sufficient number to illustrate the complete story, and the townsite
will not adapt itself to a full coverage. However, there are extensive sup-
plementary exhibits in the Jamestown Visitor Center, which are designed
to help you understand and "experience" Jamestown.
The Old Church Tower, standing on the grounds of the Association
for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, was probably built about
UNEARTHED AT JAMESTOWN
Guide to the Area
(Numbers correspond to numbers on the map on page 43.)
"James Towne" developed on the west end of Jamestown Island. At its
maximum extent it lay along the river for approximately three-quarters
of a mile. It was a thin strip of a town between the James River and the
marsh that came to be called Pitch and Tar Swamp. At first there was
only the fort, then an enlarged palisaded area. Gradually the town grew
with the building of houses, a church, a market place, shops, storehouses,
forts, statehouses, and other public buildings grouped along streets and
paths. The entire townsite is an exhibit area. The Visitor Center (1), at
its edge, is a short distance from the parking area across a trestle bridge
spanning Pitch and Tar Swamp.
In the Visitor Center, sponsored jointly by the Association for the
Preservation of Virginia Antiquities and the National Park Service, an
orientation program of movies and slides, an information desk, an ex-
tensive series of exhibits, and literature and souvenirs are available. The
exhibits include many irreplaceable objects, such as earrings of Poca-
hontas, and many objects recovered from the ground. There are
dioramas, a large model of James Fort, illustrated panels, and other dis-
plays telling about early Jamestown and explaining the points of interest
on the townsite and along the island tour or drive.
The adjacent townsite is easily reached from the Visitor Center, and a
good general view of it may be had from the observation terrace around
the Tercentenary Monument (2). This shaft of New Hampshire granite
rising 103 feet above its base was erected in 1907 to commemorate the
300th anniversary of the settlement^
A footpath leads from the monument terrace to the church area, cross-
ing the trace of the "Greate Road," which served the town's residents
some 300 years ago. It passes close to the site of a 17th-century brick kiln
just inside the entrance to the APVA grounds.
The Church Area (3), the most inspiring spot at Jamestown today,
embraces the Old Tower, the Memorial Church, and the Churchyard.
The ivy-covered Old Church Tower is the only standing ruin of the 17th-
century town. It is believed to have been a part of the first brick church
built about 1639- Its 3-foot-thick walls of handmade brick laid in English
bond have been standing for more than 300 years. The Memorial Church,
directly behind the tower, was erected in 1907 by the National Society
of the Colonial Dames of America over the foundations of the early
brick church. Within the church are memorials and burials, including
the "Knight's" tomb and that of Rev. John Clough.
Of particular note, inside the church, are the exposed cobblestone founda-
tions of an earlier church said to have housed the first representative legis-
lative assembly in America which convened at Jamestown on July 30,
1619. In the Churchyard many dead are buried, and the few gravestones
that have survived the wear of time and weather are a witness to the
antiquity of the spot. These carry the names of Berkeley, Blair, Harrison,
Ludwell, Bevereley, Lee, Sherwood, and others. Even the extent of the
burial ground is unknown. It is more extensive than either the iron grill
fence or the old wall (built of bricks from the ruins of one of the 17th-
century Jamestown churches) suggests.
Adjacent to the church are a number of memorials and monuments
erected through the years, particularly in 1907, to commemorate im-
The foundations of the Last (fourth) State house Group as it extends
toward the James River. It was the burning of this state house in
1698 that was the immediate reason for moving the capital of the
colony from Jamestown to Williamsburg.
The graveyard near the Memorial Church. The sycamore (center)
now separates the graves of Rev. James Blair, a founder of William
and Mary College, from that of his wife, Sarah Harrison Blair.
portant events at Jamestown and to honor some of those outstanding in
Virginia history. These include the House of Burgesses Monument (4) list-
ing the members of America's first representative legislative assembly in
1619, the Pocahontas Monument (5), by William Ordway Partridge; and
the Capt.John Smith Statue (6), designed by William Couper.
The footpath leads to the concrete walkway on the edge of the sea-
wall. This seawall (built in 1900-1901) along the shoreline of the Asso-
ciation grounds and the later riprap extension of it now protect the site
from further erosion. Walk to the right (upriver) along the concrete
walkway. It passes near, but outside, the Confederate earthwork thrown
up in 1861 when the James River approach to Richmond was being
fortified. At one point a bit of history can be read from the ground in a
Site Use Exhibit (7). The earth in the side of the embankment has been
carefully sliced and various levels are identified — undisturbed ground,
the level of Indian use, the zone with evidences of 17th-century use, and,
topping all, the earthwork built by Confederate troops in 1861.
Just beyond, but at a point now in the river, due to the erosion of the
last three centuries, is the site of [ ( James Fort" (8), which was built in
May and June 1607, and constituted the Jamestown settlement in the
first few years. There is a large model of "James Fort" in the Visitor
Center and a full scale reconstruction of it has been built in Festival
Park above Glasshouse Point and adjacent to the Jamestown terminus of
the Colonial Parkway.
In the words of William Strachey, recorder for the colony, the fort, as
built in 1607, and standing in 1610, was "cast almost into the forme of a
Triangle, and so Pallizadoed. The South side next the River ... by
reason the advantage of the ground doth so require, contains one hun-
dred and forty yards: the West and East sides a hundred onely. At every
Angle or corner, where the lines meete, a Bulwarke or Watchtower is
raised, and in each Bulwarke a peece of Ordnance or two well mounted.
To every side, a proportioned distance from the Pallisado, is a setled
streete of houses, that run along, so as each line of the Angle hath his
streete. In the middest is a market place, a Store house, and a Corps du
guard, as likewise a pretty Chappel . . . [all] inclosed . . . round with
a Pallizado of Planckes and strong Posts, foure foote deepe in the
ground, of yong Oakes, Walnuts, &c . . . the principall Gate from the
Towne, through the Pallizado, opens to the River ... at each Bulwarke
there is a Gate likewise to goe forth, and at every Gate a Demi-Culverin
and so in the Market Place . . . ."
Just beyond the fort site, approximately 125 feet from the present sea-
wall, at a point where it makes a pronounced turn to the right, is the
First Landing Site (9) which the colonists reached on May 13, 1607. Here
the next day, all came ashore and landed supplies. This spot, like the fort
site, is now in the river. The Old Cypress (10), standing several hundred
feet from the shore above the landing site, is said to have stood at one
time on the edge of the island. This is visible evidence of the erosion
that has taken at least 25 acres of the western part of the townsite.
The Tercentenary Monument
erected by the United States in
1907, to commemorate the
300th anniversary of the land-
ing of the first permanent
English settlers at Jamestown.
The Hunt Memorial erected to the memory of Rev. Robert Hunt, first
minister at Jamestown, by the Colonial Dames of America in the State
Inshore, at this point, the Memorial Cross (11) occupies a position of
prominence. This marks the burial ground that extended along the ridge
behind it. This is the earliest known burial ground at Jamestown and is
thought to have preceded that around the church. It was along this
ridge, first used as a cemetery, that Jamestown's third statehouse (burned
by Nathaniel Bacon, Jr., in 1676) was constructed. A decade later the
fourth (and last) statehouse was built on the same site. It was the acci-
dental burning of the last statehouse and the structures associated with
it, in 1698, that was the immediate reason for moving the seat of govern-
ment from Jamestown. This group of houses— the Last Statehouse Group
(12)— consisted of the last country house, three houses of Philip Lud-
well, and the fourth statehouse. The foundations are marked and the
footpath, leaving the concrete walkway, follows along these foundations
and passes near the Memorial Cross.
The walkway now returns to the Church area. The path follows across
a low area, known in the old days as the "Vale," and into the Confed-
erate earthwork. Here is the bronze relief memorial to The Rev. Robert
Hunt (13). He was the chaplain to the first settlers. On the third Sunday
Owe of the larger of the Jamestown foundations, located in the "New
Towne" section. It has been identified as the "Country House." As the
foundations indicate, several houses occupied this site.
after Trinity, in June 1607, he administered the first recorded Holy Com-
munion according to the rites of the Church of England.
The tour route emerges from the Confederate earthworks near the en-
trance to the church and passes again near the Smith, Pocahontas, and
House of Burgesses markers and other memorials. Just beyond, the tour
leaves the Association grounds (the west end of the site of old "James
Towne") and follows a walk close to the bank of the river. Beyond,
stretches the eastern section of "James Towne."
It has become possible to define on the ground the pattern of James-
town as it existed in at least a part of the early period. Utilizing the route
The foundation ruins of the First Statehouse at Jamestown, where the
House of Burgessess met in the period 1640—55. Believed to have been
used earlier by Sir John Harvey.
'•mm ii V.,jir-
of the "Greate Road," "Back Streete," "the highway close to the river,"
and various connecting ways, a plan now lays on the ground east from
the Visitor Center. Exposed original foundations, other ruins marked
aboveground in brick and wood (these in dull white), reopened old
ditches (which often mark property lines), fences of period type, and
replanted hedges are all used. Paintings help in visualizing the houses
that once stood on some of the foundations while recorded descriptions,
narrative markers, and other aids give information on owners, events,
The extreme east end of Jamestown is that area developed after 1619,
first actually surveyed by William Claiborne in 1623, and known to its
first residents as New Towne. Here it is possible to locate, plot, and
identify, with some assurance, a number of the early property holdings.
There is the plot taken up by Capt. John Harvey in 1624, on which
he had houses and where he kept a garden and cultivated fruit trees.
Across "Back Streete" from the Harvey site was the holding of Dr.
John Pott who was sent from England in 1621 accompanied by two
surgeons and a chest of medicine. He had a house here by 1622,
although it was not until after this date that he obtained his land
West of the Harvey site was the home and lot of George Menefie,
an attorney, administrator, and member of the council. Near the home
of Menefie was the tract of Ralph Hamor, Dale's secretary of state, who
died in 1626. Farther west were the holdings of John Chew, a merchant
(1624), and of Richard Stephens (1623), who had personal difficulties
with John Harvey, and who later appears to have been a party to the
first duel fought in an English colony. North of the "Back Streete"
and west of Pott's holdings were those of Edward Blaney (a merchant),
Capt. Roger Smith, and Capt. William Pierce, whose house George
Sandys, in 1623, pronounced "the fairest in Virginia."
Near the river, in the "New Towne" section, stood the First State-
house (14) in Virginia. Foundations here (now partly exposed and partly
marked) are thought to be those of this significant structure. It served
the colony from 1641 to 1656. In it, during the early governorship of Sir
William Berkeley, were discussed the measures needful for the govern-
ment of the growing colony. Here, too, the colony gave its submission
to the commonwealth government of Oliver Cromwell in England in
1652, and Richard Bennett was chosen as governor by the assembly to
Even the designation "New Towne" was forgotten in the years after
1650 when the area, including street alinement, changed considerably.
Those living in houses here or owning property in Jamestown's east end
then included Sherwood, Thomas Rabley, James Alsop, Richard Holder,
William Edwards, and Henry Hartwell, one of the founders of the
College of William and Mary. The scanty remains of Hartwell's Frame
An early baking oven of clay
reconstructed from fragments
found in the excavations at
House (15) are believed to have been identified and they are marked. In
this instance the discovery of a preponderance of "H-H" initialed wine
bottle seals furnished a helpful identity clue.
The fl 'Country House" (16) in this early period lay in the "New Towne"
section. Perhaps a number of houses stood here on the same site prior to
the first brick structure that bears this designation. In excavations on the
site, the foundations of the brick building were found, including ex-
cellent specimens of ornamental plaster which may have adorned this
structure or that of a later private residence of William Sherwood, which
was found to have occupied the same site. Its foundations are visible.
Dominating the scene today in this area are the ruined walls of the
J aquelin- Ambler House (17). These are a testimony of the late colonial
period (18th century) when Jamestown Island was no longer the seat of
government and when, as the town declined, the island became the pri-
vate estate of two families— Ambler and Travis. The present walls of the
Ambler House constitute the center portion of a rather impressive resi-
dence that was flanked by two wings. It was begun about 1710 and when
fully established, had formal gardens, the brick walls of which were
partly uncovered during archeological work on the townsite. Its con-
struction is thought to have obliterated all trace of Richard Kemp's
house, the first recorded all-brick house in Virginia.
Between the Ambler House ruins and the Visitor Center stood a "long
house" (18), one made of several sections with common connecting walls.
Its long walls have been outlined on the ground as it stood some three
centuries ago. Behind this site are the original ruins (displayed under
cover) of an early building that appears from its fireboxes and other
features to have served some, but as yet unidentified, "manufacturing"
purpose. Near it, unmistakeable evidences of pottery manufacturing
have been found. This particular locality has evidences, too, of other
types of workmanship. Perhaps, for a time, it was a kind of r' 'Production
Center" (19) in Jamestown.
The story of Jamestown is not all concerned with the townsite itself.
Much of it deals with farming and other activities on the island sur-
rounding the town except on the river front, and especially to the east.
The Island Drive is a motor road that gives access to this island area.
Starting from the central parking area, it traverses the island's 1,559-5
acres of marsh and woodland. The full drive is about 5 miles although
it has a shorter 3-mile loop. Natural features are named and markers
carry legends about the land and the people. Large paintings here and
there picture the life of the times in daily activities such as winemak-
ing, tobacco-growing, and lumbering. After passing the Confederate Fort
(20), you come to Black Point (21) at the east end of the island where
there is an excellent view of the lower reaches of the James River. Then
the loop takes you past the Travis Graveyard (22) and The Pond (23),
where Lawrence Bohun collected herbs for medical experiment in 1610.
The one-way tour road loops back to the parking area and to the
isthmus connecting the island and Glasshouse Point on the mainland, so
named because the colonists, in 1608, undertook to produce glass at
this location. Here are exhibited the Original Glass Furnace Ruins (24)
Winemaking as it may have been practiced at Jamestown three cen-
turies ago. (A painting by Sidney E. King.)
the remains of the first attempt to produce glass in America. Nearby is
a Working Furnace (25) of the same type housed in a thatch-covered
building constructed in the manner of those used in Virginia and Eng-
land three and a half centuries ago. The Jamestown Glasshouse Founda-
tion, Inc., representing a number of leading American glass companies,
helped to make this possible. The Foundation operates the furnace and
in season the blowing of glass in the old way can be observed. Hand-
made glass objects can be purchased.
The tour of Jamestown ends here at the "Glasshouse." From this
point the Colonial Parkway leads to Williamsburg and Yorktown.
Following this route you can read history on the spot in the order it
A building, such as may have been used in 1608—09, houses the glass-
making exhibit on Glasshouse Point.
How to Reach Jamestown
Jamestown Island is easily reached over the Colonial Parkway from
Williamsburg only 10 miles away. Williamsburg is the nearest rail and
bus terminal and the closest point of concentration of housing and
eating facilities. The approach from the south is over State Routes 10
and 31 to the ferry over the James River from Scotland to Glasshouse
Point near the Jamestown Entrance Gate. From Richmond and points
to the West, State Routes 5 and 31 can be used without entering
About Your Visit
Jamestown is open daily, except on Christmas Day, from 9 a. m. to
6 p. m. from April 1 to September 30 and 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. the rest
of the year. A single admission of 50 cents per person is collected at
the Entrance Gate on Glasshouse Point. However, during the 350th
Jamestown Anniversary Festival season in 1957 this charge is a part of,
and included in, a $1 per person admission including all of Jamestown
and nearby Festival Park with its reconstructed "James Fort," ship
replicas, and other features. All school students 18 years of age and under,
when in groups, and all children under 12 are admitted without charge
when accompanied by adults assuming responsibility for their orderly
conduct. Organizations and groups are given special service if arrange-
ments are made in advance. All visitors are urged to go first to the
Jamestown Visitor Center where literature, information, and a special
program are available.
No eating or lodging facilities are available at Jamestown. There is,
however, a restaurant and picnic ground in the Virginia State Festival
Park at Glasshouse Point.
Jamestown Island (except Jamestown National Historic Site adminis-
tered and maintained by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia
Antiquities) is part of Colonial National Historical Park. The park also
includes Yorktown Battlefield, Colonial Parkway, and Cape Henry
Memorial. It is administered by the National Park Service of the United
States Department of the Interior.
Inquiries relating to the Association for the Preservation of Virginia
Antiquities area should be addressed to that Association, Jamestown,
Va.; those relating to the National Park Service area to the Superin-
tendent, Colonial National Historical Park, Yorktown, Va.
Andrews, Matthew Page. Virginia: The Old Dominion. Doubleday
Doran. New York. 1937.
Chandler, J. A. C, and Thames, T. B. Colonial Virginia. Times-
Dispatch Company. Richmond, Va. 1907.
Forman, Henry Chandlee. Jamestown and St. Mary's: Buried Cities of
Romance. The Johns Hopkins Press. Baltimore. 1938.
Hatch, Charles E., Jr. The First Seventeen Years: Virginia, 1607-1623.
Jamestown 350th Anniversary Historical Booklet No. 6. Virginia
350th Anniversary Celebration Corporation. Williamsburg, Va. 1957.
Stanard, Mary Newton. The Story of Virginia's First Century. J. B.
Lippincott. Philadelphia. 1928.
Tyler, Lyon Gardiner. The Cradle of the Republic: Jamestown and
James River. Ed. 2. The Hermitage Press. Richmond, Va. 1906.
Wertenbaker, Thomas Jefferson. The First Americans 1607-1690.
A History of American Life Series, Vol. II. The Macmillan Com-
pany. New York. 1927.
Wright, Louis B. Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization:
1607-1761. Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 1947.
Yonge, Samuel H. The Site of Old 'James Towne" 1607-1698. The
Hermitage Press. Richmond, Va. 1907.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1957 OF — 403767